The closest thing to an old-fashioned non-electric waffle iron is the pizelle maker. Pizzelle (pronounced "pit-sell") are Italian wafer cookies. The name comes from the Italian pizze for round and flat. Many different cultures have adapted this technology and re-named it accordingly. In Scandinavia they are also known as "Lukken" and in Holland as Krumcake. All use an iron similar iron to the pizzelle.
Belgian waffles are a North American waffle variety, based on a simplified version of the Brussels waffle.[73] Recipes are typically baking soda leavened, though some are yeast-raised.[74] They are distinguished from standard American waffles by their use of 1 ½" depth irons.[75] Belgian waffles take their name from an oronym of the Bel-Gem brand, which was an authentic Brussels waffle vendor that helped popularize the thicker style at the 1964 New York World's Fair.[76]
This is ideal for making waffle pops – if you haven’t heard of those before, this is a waffle maker you’re going to want to check out. It cooks mini heart-shaped waffles individually and has a space provided for putting in Popsicle sticks or cake-pop sticks to make sure your waffle pop process goes smoothly. But don’t worry – it will make your standard, no-stick waffles just as well as any other waffle maker, too.
If you like your waffles a little crispier than fluffy, you can opt to add some oil to the waffle mix too which will help crisp up the outer edges. Once you get these bad boys out of the waffle iron you will want to top them and eat the right away. Feel free to top them with some fresh blueberries or strawberries and some homemade whipped cream if you prefer that over butter and syrup. Or try them my way with the sausage, eggs, and hot sauce!

The Canyon BWR attracts world-class cyclists from around the world. It has a cult following of fervent racers from cyclocross, road and mountain biking. As a result, it has become known as much for its difficulty, with all the glorious trappings of the Belgian Spring Classics—as it has for the celebratory atmosphere that pervades the event’s every funky facet.
If you're ready to tackle the challenge of making waffles by hand, both home users and expert testers love the Nordic Ware Belgian Waffle Maker. It heats consistently and evenly, although there's a bit of a learning curve, and cooks four waffles at once. Waffles releases quickly and it cleans up easily; you can even submerge the entire thing if need be. Thin handles make it easy for the Nordic Ware Belgian waffler to lie flat, even on flat-surface electric stoves.
The Krups GQ502D took a little more time than some of the other models we tested to bake waffles. In our tests, waffles typically took about seven or eight minutes to cook, while the Presto FlipSide, for one, cooked a thicker waffle in about half the time. But the machines that cooked faster also tended to overcook, or to develop hot spots. A few extra minutes of waiting time is a small price to pay for golden, even-toned waffles, and the wait isn’t so bad when you can make four waffles at once.
The Chef’sChoice Classic WafflePro 852 was our former runner-up when the Chef’sChoice 840B was unavailable. Although this model was an initial favorite in our testing, with tasters praising its waffles’ consistency and crunch, it makes only two thin, American-style waffles at a time, whereas our pick makes four. We also found that this model had a tendency to burn waffles when the dial was on the highest setting.
A related but key feature is the ability to control the temperature of the waffle iron since different batters cook at different rates. Machines that only operate at one pre-set temperature are likely to under-cook or over-cook your waffles – and as you probably know from experience, it’s next-to-impossible to continually check your waffles as they cook without ruining them.
"This is one of the best waffle makers I have found. It has removable trays for easy cleaning …. I have used it to cook waffles, sandwiches, and hamburgers. All have been cooked evenly and fully. The hamburgers were done in about 6-7 minutes and sandwiches in about 3-4 minutes. This cuts down on time since each side would have to be cooked in a skillet or open griddle," wrote one verified purchaser in February 2017. Negative reviewers complain that the unit is not very sturdy and the top plate frequently falls down.
The versatile four-waffle size allows you to feed large or small crowds, but this sturdy machine is still relatively compact, and it can easily store vertically or horizontally. Not only is it about the same price as our former top pick, the Proctor Silex 26016A (which is no longer being manufactured), it even feels of better quality and comes with more great features.
Mixing is a critical step in batter preparation since overmixing causes the gluten to develop excessively and create a batter with too high of a viscosity that is difficult to pour and does not expand easily. A thick batter that is difficult spreading in the baking iron has an increased water activity of around 0.85. The increased viscosity made it harder for water to evaporate from the waffle causing an increase in water activity. The control waffles with a softer texture had a water activity of 0.74 after cooking. The Aw is less because the softer texture allows the water to evaporate. With an increased storage time, waffle physical and textural properties changes regardless of the batter viscosity.[93] Aged waffles shrink because air bubbles leak out and the structure starts to condense. Hardness and viscosity also increases as time goes by. Aged waffle samples displayed a starch retrogradation peak that increased with storage time due to the fact that more crystalline structures were present. Starch retrogradation is mentioned previously in this paper. The enthalpy value for melting of starch crystals increased with storage time as well.[93]

Frozen waffles are delicious, but freshly made ones are even better. There are plenty of waffle recipes online, and once you've assembled the ingredients, you just need a waffle maker. There is a dizzying array of waffle makers out there, so we've researched to find the best ones you can buy. Before you buy one, the first thing you need to determine is what kind of waffles you'd like to make.


Oil is best for making these; butter just won’t cut it. If you’ve the time to make clarified butter, it works well here. For those of us that haven’t the time to do so for a batch of waffles, feel free to use any neutral-tasting oil. I used sunflower oil, but vegetable, canola, etc. would work well too. For a bit of flavor, coconut oil is a great option.
Overall, the Krups was as easy to use as any machine we tested—though no machine is particularly tricky to figure out, as long as you read the instructions. Still, the GQ502D’s intuitive, set-it-and-forget-it system made the process particularly simple. Like all waffle makers, it does get hot in places: The steam vent at the back heated up quickly for us, and the top of the machine was too hot to touch after a couple of rounds of waffles. But the heatproof handle stayed cool, even after multiple uses, something that couldn’t be said of competitors like the Black+Decker Removable Plate Waffle Maker (WM700R), where built-up steam around the handle made the machine uncomfortable and risky to use.
A waffle maker isn't just a kitchen appliance—it's a wish-granter. You know the fantasy. Sunday. You awaken to the sweet scent of butter and freshly brewed coffee wafting through your home. Tiptoe to the kitchen: there's your honey at the counter and a stack of perfectly golden waffles, still steaming from the iron. You pile on the maple syrup, dig in, and then go back for more. You stay in your pajamas all day and pretend you run your own diner.
Because waffle irons are more of a kitchen extravagance than an absolute necessity, we decided to test out a few non-waffle items in the machines just for kicks—the more versatile these tools can be, the better. We waffled up some grilled cheese and sage stuffing to see how the machines would do. As we’ve seen in the past, a waffle iron may be the best tool to make things like grilled cheese: The divots become extra crisp, with cheese oozing out and forming a crackling frico, while the peaks remain soft and chewy. The nonstick surface ensures no bits of stuffing or bread are left behind. The results of this test followed the trend of the previous ones, with our high-end picks edging out the rest.

What we liked: The Cuisinart waffle maker was the hottest of all the irons we tested, making waffles in just over three minutes. The waffles it produced were light and fluffy on the inside, with a delicate and crisp crust. They had deep divots for holding lots of syrup and butter, and a traditional round shape. Because the iron gets so hot, the adjustable temperature is actually a useful feature, unlike on most of the other waffle irons we tested.
Each year the course is different. This past year’s was not the longest but it was the most dirty yet at 133-miles; 46 of which were in dirt, with 12,000 feet of elevation gain. We hope to keep the course similar to that of this year, but different. Now entering its eighth year, the Belgian Wafer Ride will cover roughly 74 miles of the Canyon BWR’s tricky trails, hellacious hills and rolling roads.
CucinaPro Bubble Waffler creates a large hexagon shaped CucinaPro Bubble Waffler creates a large hexagon shaped waffle which has a unique bubbled texture. These delicious waffles sometimes called egg waffles or eggettes have crispy golden outsides and light tender interiors. They are best served hot and often eaten plain. They can also be served with fruit and flavors ...  More + Product Details Close

Concurrently, some units feature an adjustable temperature range. When combined with the timer feature, it enables you to personalize the texture of the waffles, depending on their specific tastes. Plus, investing in a waffle maker that has a wide temperature range gives you the chance to enhance your recipe and produce consistent results time after time.

A dial on the Krups GQ502D controls browning, on a scale of 1 (lightest) to 5 (darkest). You can easily control how cooked your waffles are without ever producing an inedible one: The lightest waffles are barely brown but still cooked through, while the darkest are crisp and brown but never burnt. Compare that with the Chef’sChoice 830B, which in our tests got so hot that it started to burn waffles on a medium setting, or even with our runner-up, the Chef’sChoice 840B, which can burn its thinner waffles on the highest setting. The dial on the Krups machine also allows you to turn the waffle maker off without unplugging it, a feature that very few waffle makers have. Such a feature isn’t totally necessary, but it is nice to have if you want to keep the machine on your counter ready to use; it’s also one that a lot of Amazon customers seem to desire, judging from reviews of other waffle makers across the board.
The Krups GQ502D took a little more time than some of the other models we tested to bake waffles. In our tests, waffles typically took about seven or eight minutes to cook, while the Presto FlipSide, for one, cooked a thicker waffle in about half the time. But the machines that cooked faster also tended to overcook, or to develop hot spots. A few extra minutes of waiting time is a small price to pay for golden, even-toned waffles, and the wait isn’t so bad when you can make four waffles at once.
The Hamilton Beach Round Waffle Maker was the closest in appearance and function to our former top pick, the (now-discontinued) Oster waffle maker. It is made from brushed stainless steel and high-quality plastics that help it fit into any kitchen. Like most flip-type waffle irons, the Hamilton Beach also has a removable tray that makes cleanup simple and straightforward.

Hi Kamran, I’ve always had a thing for waffles. It is my idea of what a perfect Saturday morning breakfast should be – waffles that are crispy on the outside but moist on the inside. I have tried countless recipes in the past and have settled on two go-to recipes, one uses baking powder, the other is yeast based and uses butter. Interestingly enough both of them yield very similar results. I’ve always liked them, but didn’t love them. I have never tried a recipe that uses oil instead of butter until I tried your recipe and I LOVE it! I couldn’t finish using up the batch on the same day so I put the leftover batter in the fridge. I used it up the next day (which is this morning), the result is just as fantastic. Would you mind if I put this on my blog http://lemonchilli.nz, and quote you with a link to your website?


Our second budget pick, the Hamilton Beach Belgian Style Waffle Maker (26009), is another compact, good-for-small-apartments machine that makes consistently excellent waffles. It produces waffles more like those of our winner: thick, Belgian-style, with a crisp crust and a tender interior. Like the Cuisinart WMR-CA, however, this Hamilton Beach model tends to cost less than $30 but also feels somewhat cheaply made.

CucinaPro Bubble Waffler creates a large hexagon shaped CucinaPro Bubble Waffler creates a large hexagon shaped waffle which has a unique bubbled texture. These delicious waffles sometimes called egg waffles or eggettes have crispy golden outsides and light tender interiors. They are best served hot and often eaten plain. They can also be served with fruit and flavors ...  More + Product Details Close
We are including a look at Table Broilers here because they are part of the "make it at the table" ethos that prevailed when electric appliances were relatively rare and consequently tres chic. Wealthy hostesses missed no chance to show off their shiny new appliances. In turn, companies like Manning-Bowman sold appliances that were more like chrome sculpture. When appliances became more commonplace, they were removed from the table and relegated to the kitchen.
CucinaPro Bubble Waffler creates a large hexagon shaped CucinaPro Bubble Waffler creates a large hexagon shaped waffle which has a unique bubbled texture. These delicious waffles sometimes called egg waffles or eggettes have crispy golden outsides and light tender interiors. They are best served hot and often eaten plain. They can also be served with fruit and flavors ...  More + Product Details Close
The Cuisinart Vertical Waffle Maker (WAF-V100) seems clever at first: It stands upright, and you pour batter into a spout at the top. But Amazon customers complain that the spout clogs easily, and that it’s too small to allow add-ins such as blueberries or chocolate chips. Plus, this model won’t work at all if you want to waffle anything else, like grilled cheese or hash browns.

Our biggest criticism was one of consistency: some batches turned out strong, but others showed signs of uneven heating or inefficient steam release. Some waffles had over-crisped spots while others were golden on the bottom but soggy and undercooked on top, as though they came from two different irons. Still, the Krups was a solid performer, especially given its capacity, reasonable price, and rave reviews from other testers—it was the #1 pick from the Wirecutter and has over 240 five-star reviews on Amazon. We feel confident recommending it as a wallet-friendly alternative to the All-Clad.

There’s a lot to love about the Cuisinart Round Classic Waffle Maker. It heats up and bakes faster than any other in our test. And it was one of the few that gave a very distinct range of shades from light to dark—although it’s beyond me why anyone would want their waffles pale and flabby. Not only is the appliance itself small and thin, it stands up for storage and the cord can be wrapped in the bottom. While there’s a light to indicate that it’s ready for batter and that waffles are fully baked, there’s no sound so you have to keep an eye on it. We think that’s a small drawback for a waffle maker this good and this inexpensive.


In 1971, Oregon track coach and Nike Co-founder Bill Bowerman used his wife's waffle iron to experiment with the idea of using waffle-ironed rubber to create a new sole for footwear that would grip but be lightweight; hence making easier for individual's to be able to increase their speed. Oregon's Hayward Field, where he worked, was transitioning to an artificial surface and "Bill wanted a sole without spikes that could grip equally well on grass or bark dust." He was talking to his wife about this puzzle over breakfast, when the waffle iron idea came into play. [9] Bowerman's design inspiration led to the introduction of the so-called "Moon Shoe" in 1972, so named because the waffle tread was said to resemble the footprints left by astronauts on the moon. Further refinement resulted in the "Waffle Trainer" in 1974, which helped fuel the explosive growth of Blue Ribbon Sports/Nike.[10][11]
Enjoy fresh homemade waffles anytime with the Waffle Iron by Classic Cuisine! The flip style waffle maker features 180° rotation to ensure evenly cooked waffles every time, while the nonstick plates allow for easy release and the removable drip tray makes clean up a snap. The iron is equipped with an adjustable temperature dial and an indicator light that tells you when it is preheated, when it's time to flip your waffles, and when it's done. Depending on your type of batter, this maker can...
The famous chicken and waffle combo is something we as foodies love. Combining veggies into it was something they probably could of forgot in this particular sandwich. As veterans, we also got a side of syrup. Depending on your preference, you can't go wrong with either the salty gravy or sweet syrup as your dunkin' sauce. Remember, it is All About The Sauce . We would recommend!
Monica and Andre's mother Vitoria is native to the region of Aveiro where this specialty waffle originates from.  After  her diagnosis with leukemia, they  promised her she would still see them bring this Portuguese waffle which is called the Bolacha Americana (American cookie) to America.  A few years after finishing college they finally decided they had to keep the promise they made to her and bring this treat to the US for the first time. They started in 2015 at local street fairs and brought their cousins,  sisters Amanda and Andrea along too. After the fairs that summer they all knew this was something they had to continue.  On October 10,2015  they opened the shop, down the block from the hospital they were all born in. Their diverse educational backgrounds, family bond and love for their product has made Costa Nova Waffle a new Long Island favorite for dessert and coffee. 
Toppings are fabulous, but the perfectly crisp, tender, and golden brown square waffles from All-Clad's Belgian waffle maker will leave you wondering, who needs butter and syrup anyway? It was one of the top scorers in all our performance evaluations and tied for easiest to use overall. Turn the dial to your preferred doneness setting, pour in batter (it's okay if you use too much — the removable moat tray will catch any excess), and go about your business until it chimes.

If you’re tight on space and money, the Black+Decker offers the most bang for your buck for thin, American-style waffles. It produces waffles that are thin and crunchy on the outside, with some chewiness on the inside; it makes four square waffles, with shallow wells, at a time; and its reversible plates and adjustable hinge convert it into a panini press for toasting thick sandwiches. The unit also opens up to lie completely flat as a griddle for eggs, pancakes, and more, making this a cheap all-in-one breakfast station. The plates are fully removable and dishwasher-safe for fast and easy cleanup.
What we liked: The Cuisinart waffle maker was the hottest of all the irons we tested, making waffles in just over three minutes. The waffles it produced were light and fluffy on the inside, with a delicate and crisp crust. They had deep divots for holding lots of syrup and butter, and a traditional round shape. Because the iron gets so hot, the adjustable temperature is actually a useful feature, unlike on most of the other waffle irons we tested.
In regards to the materials used for manufacturing the waffle makers, these include cast steel, aluminum, cast iron, as well as non-stick coating. As for the size of the squares and pockets of the waffles, these vary depending on distinct units. In fact, some commercial waffle makers come with removable grids; which makes it easier to clean and sanitize the units.
The thermostat allows the automatic control of the temperature in the waffle iron. However, the "Twin-O-Matic" also has a thermometer -- a device that indicates the actual temperature of the iron. The principle behing the thermomenter is basically the same - a bimetallic strip is made with the property that its warping is a linear function of temperature. This strip is connected to a lever mechanism that causes the small needle to rotate. Hence, the position of the needle is a direct function of the temperature. The dial is calibrated to reflect this. 

Belgian and American waffles differ in size and thickness, which means you can’t use one waffle iron to make both kinds. Belgian waffles are taller—1 to 1½ inches thick—and have deeper wells than their thinner American cousins. Traditionally, they’re also made with a different batter. As Kathleen Purvis writes in the Seattle Times, “Most Belgian waffle recipes are yeast-based, to get that crispy texture.” But you can certainly put yeast-raised batter in a regular waffle maker (as we did in our tests). Likewise, you can put regular old Bisquick, baking-powder-leavened batter, or even pancake batter in a Belgian-style waffle maker. The resulting waffles will just have a different texture and flavor than those made with yeasted Belgian-waffle batter. Any kind can be crispy, depending, as Maichel told us, on the recipe you use and how hot the waffle maker gets: “The more oil [or fat] in your recipe, the higher the temperature you cook it at, the crispier your waffle will be.”
A. This varies depending on a range of factors, including which waffle maker you choose, the recipe you use, and how much batter you put in. If your waffle maker has one, we recommend trusting the indicator light to tell you when your waffle's done, but if you open the lid and it doesn't look crisp enough for your liking, you can cook it a little longer. Ultimately, it may take some trial and error to find that waffle-making sweet spot.
“For getting the waffles out,” Maichel said, “a wooden chopstick is good because you can get it under there. Don’t use any metal … if [the plate] gets scratched, it’ll turn into a sticky spot.” In testing, we found that chopsticks were also useful for scraping out burned bits that got stuck in the Presto FlipSide, and tongs with silicone or nylon heads worked well for removing waffles, too.

The important qualities of a waffle maker are pretty much the same, though, no matter which type of waffles it makes. The ability to provide even heat across all of the plates tops our list; obviously, no waffle is going to be crunchy and delicious if part of it is undercooked, or if it’s necessary to burn one side to a crisp in order to cook the other side all the way through.
My engineering instinct tells me to stick to what is simple, which led me to this cute little snapper. THIS WAFFLE IRON IS AMAZING. I have only made three waffles on it so far, but IT MADE PERFECT GOLDEN, CRISPY WAFFLES WITH HOT, STEAMY FLUFF ON THE INSIDE. And it required no cleaning! And it stores upright nicely! And … And … And … I have decided, unless you run a professional kitchen or feed a family of 13 waffles every day, you do not need to pay any more money for a professional waffle iron that ‘flips’ or ‘shoots flames out its behind.’ This waffle iron is inexpensive, but I have no regrets. This iron does exactly what I want it to do. And that is to make perfect waffles.”
The Breville quickly produces crispy brown waffles, with the most consistent color of all the batches we tested, making it the best option if you prefer the thinner type of American waffle. The waffles managed to be perfectly crispy, without becoming dry, and maintained some fluffiness within. Although it makes only one waffle at a time, it reheats and cooks rapidly, so you can crank out waffle after waffle with ease. The built-in drip tray, nonstick surface, and minimal design keep cleanup effortless.
If you’re tight on space and money, the Black+Decker offers the most bang for your buck for thin, American-style waffles. It produces waffles that are thin and crunchy on the outside, with some chewiness on the inside; it makes four square waffles, with shallow wells, at a time; and its reversible plates and adjustable hinge convert it into a panini press for toasting thick sandwiches. The unit also opens up to lie completely flat as a griddle for eggs, pancakes, and more, making this a cheap all-in-one breakfast station. The plates are fully removable and dishwasher-safe for fast and easy cleanup.
We can’t say anything good about the Hamilton Beach Belgian Style Flip Waffle Maker (26010). It cost about $40 the last time we checked, and it’s worth maybe half that. Our notes literally say, “I would not wish this on my worst enemy.” Not only is the cord microscopically short, limiting the machine’s placement in the kitchen, but forcing the machine to flip over took quite a bit of effort in our tests. The resulting waffle was terrible: The batter slid around in the machine, pooling on one end and baking unevenly, with parts that were completely uncooked.

We also tested the flip model from Hamilton Beach, the Hamilton Beach Flip Belgian Waffle Maker. It has a drip tray and removable plates for easy cleanup, and, although this unit is larger, the handle folds in for easier storage. Similar to the other Hamilton Beach model, though, this unit did not heat up well, which led to sticking and dense waffles.
“My little one and I LOVE this waffle-maker. It is so easy to clean and makes them beautifully. I’ve never had a burnt or undercooked waffle. I make a full batch at a time, freeze them, and my little one is able to pop them in the toaster for a quick breakfast in the morning!!! I honestly think these waffles are better than the ones at Goofy’s Kitchen (and they’re bigger).”
Introduced in North American in 1962, Belgian waffles usually use a yeasted batter that results in a waffle that rises, making them thicker and softer than American waffles -- although they should still be crispy on the outside. They're larger too, which is why they need a different type of waffle maker than traditional, American-style waffles. The deeper pockets on Belgian waffles are great for holding toppings like syrup, whipped cream or fruit.
With the free digital recipe book, you’ll have the power to make amazing waffles that will reboot your spirit and import a gigabyte of flavors to your body’s hard drive! Included are classic, paleo, vegan, and gluten-free recipes. Step out of “safe mode” with recipes for hash browns, paninis, brownies, and more. With the fun and easy-to-use Keyboard  Waffle Iron, you can upgrade your creative cooking skills without the pesky updates!
Since a waffle maker is a single-purpose kitchen item (though Will It Waffle? author Daniel Shumski and others are doing their best to change that), it should be small enough to store easily. That means no flip waffle makers, which easily take up twice the space. Don’t worry, though—you aren’t missing much. We did test a few flip models, and we found them to be no easier to use (and with worse results) than standard countertop models. “The reason flip models are designed that way,” Matt Maichel said, “is because gravity causes the batter to fall on the bottom plate, and you flip to mitigate temperature loss by putting some of the uncooked material on what was initially the top plate.” Maichel doesn’t use any flip models, because he doesn’t find that the feature actually improves cooking. Interestingly, we discovered that other pros prefer flip models. J. Kenji López-Alt expressed a strong preference for flippers, though his favorite is the stovetop variety that you manually flip. He said, “It makes getting the waffle out easier, especially if you’re doing sticky things. I rely on gravity.” We believe it takes practice and experience to get a good feel for obtaining the best results from flip models, so for most people, we don’t think they’re worth all the extra space they take up.
The Canyon BWR attracts world-class cyclists from around the world. It has a cult following of fervent racers from cyclocross, road and mountain biking. As a result, it has become known as much for its difficulty, with all the glorious trappings of the Belgian Spring Classics—as it has for the celebratory atmosphere that pervades the event’s every funky facet.

No matter what you’re buying, easy cleanup is always an issue. For waffle makers, it’s even more crucial. If you’ve ever gone through the exercise of trying to scrape burned bits of waffle out of the nooks and crannies of a sub-standard waffle maker – particularly one which is supposedly “non-stick,” with surfaces that can be easily damaged – features like removable grids and easily-accessible surfaces everywhere on the machine are probably at the top of your “must-have” list.


The waffle maker has seven different browning settings to accommodate all tastes. Regardless of which setting you pick, the advanced heating technology ensures consistent cooking straight through the waffle. A special steam-release system prevents condensation from building up, too, thus ensuring that your waffle comes out crispy on the outside and fluffy on the inside.
If our main pick sells out, we also like the Chef’sChoice WafflePro Classic Belgian (840B), our original top pick, which performs just as well as the Krups—but only with thick batter, which makes it less flexible in practice. It also produces fewer waffles at a time than the Krups, but it does have a wide range of doneness settings, and it will beep when your waffles are ready.
I really would like to give this place better reviews,  but the service is SO BAD. I came twice, once during lunch and again during breakfast (but early, so it wasn't even crowded). Both times I sat outside, and both times the service was inexcusably bad. At breakfast, my husband never got a refill on his coffee. Both times I sat for so long that I wasn't sure if I was supposed to get up to place my order at the counter (I wasn't).
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