Flemish waffles, or Gaufres à la Flamande, are a specialty of northern France and portions of western Belgium.[69] The original recipe, published in 1740 by Louis-Auguste de Bourbon in Le Cuisinier Gascon, is as follows: Take "deux litrons" (1.7 liters or 7 cups) of flour and mix it in a bowl with salt and one ounce of brewer's yeast barm. Moisten it completely with warm milk. Then whisk fifteen egg whites and add that to the mixture, stirring continuously. Incorporate "un livre" (490 grams or 1.1 pounds) of fresh butter, and let the batter rise. Once the batter has risen, take your heated iron, made expressly for these waffles, and wrap some butter in a cloth and rub both sides of the iron with it. When the iron is completely heated, make your waffles, but do so gently for fear of burning them. Cooked, take them out, put them on a platter, and serve them with both sugar and orange blossom water on top.[70]
Today there are many (many!) Belgian waffle makers on the market. We set out to find the best one by making hundreds of waffles and by going the extra waffle-making mile by consulting a postdoc in MIT’s mechanical engineering program to learn the basic thermodynamic principles at work in waffle irons. After a month of waffles for breakfast and for lunch, we had a solid winner—an iron that made picture-perfect Belgian waffles, two at a time, in under 5 minutes.

What's the difference between Belgian Waffles and "regular" American-style waffles? According to Chowhound, Belgian waffles are bigger all around — in diameter and thickness — and also have deeper square pockets than their American counterparts. They are also traditionally made with yeast, which makes them light and fluffy. Regular waffles, on the other hand, are usually made with baking powder and are thinner and crunchier than Belgian waffles. Belgian waffles require a different kind of waffle maker.


Make restaurant quality waffles with the Rotary Waffle Maker! Belgian waffle plates, it's the perfect tool for making Belgian waffles. The rotary motion allows the perfect repartition of dough and sugar and even baking for professional quality waffles! This waffle maker also has adjustable temperature control up to 410°F, for light and fluffy or crispy waffles. The unit features power and ready the indicicator lights and features a compact handle for easy storage. The Kalorik waffle maker...
This waffle iron was the priciest of the units we tested, but the waffles that it produced were so evenly browned, so delicately crisp on the outside while fluffy on the inside, that we believe it's the best option for Belgian waffles. This All-Clad model features extra-deep divots, for Belgian-style waffles with maximum butter and syrup capacity. It makes two waffles at a time and contains a drip tray for minimizing spills and messes. The heavy stainless steel body and die-cast plates heat up fast and evenly for consistent browning.
What’s more reassuring is when you sit down to tuck-in and the waffles are still crisp and warm. In my experience, a moderately warm oven can be helpful in maintaining ultimate crispness, but only in small batches. Large batches can end up unappetizingly rock-hard because they can overcook from the heat of the oven. A better approach to all of this is to toss the freshly made waffles— one at a time— back and forth between your hands. This essentially helps release any steam and allows for divine crispness. However, for another approach to this, I’ve some more tips.

The Cuisinart Round Classic Waffle Maker wins this category by a landslide, not because of fancy bells and whistles but because of the one thing it does very well: Turning out thin, crunchy American-style waffles. Cooking time is quick -- about three minutes per waffle -- and as long as you apply a little oil to the grid, its non-stick coating releases those waffles quickly and cleanly. The three-year warranty is impressive in this price range.
If looks matter to you most, consider a rotating waffle maker. Because you flip the iron over as it bakes, the batter can become more evenly distributed over the grates. That being said, if you really want picture-perfect waffles, try our Lab's even-heating hack: After pouring waffle batter over the hot grates, use a rubber spatula to gently (and quickly) distribute the batter evenly across the surface before closing the waffle maker's lid. You'll never have to eat a waffle with absent, sorry-looking edges again!

The thermostat allows the automatic control of the temperature in the waffle iron. However, the "Twin-O-Matic" also has a thermometer -- a device that indicates the actual temperature of the iron. The principle behing the thermomenter is basically the same - a bimetallic strip is made with the property that its warping is a linear function of temperature. This strip is connected to a lever mechanism that causes the small needle to rotate. Hence, the position of the needle is a direct function of the temperature. The dial is calibrated to reflect this.

While the Oster and Cuisinart were the two top waffle makers among our finalists in initial testing, there are four other strong choices as well. Ultimately, we went with the two that stood out during testing. None of these really stood out as a drop-in replacement for the Oster when it was discontinued, so we went looking for something with power to match our old pick and settled on the BELLA. However, if you’re looking for something different, we encourage you to read about the other four finalists (and the additional seventh non-finalist) as well.
Belgian waffles are a North American waffle variety, based on a simplified version of the Brussels waffle.[73] Recipes are typically baking soda leavened, though some are yeast-raised.[74] They are distinguished from standard American waffles by their use of 1 ½" depth irons.[75] Belgian waffles take their name from an oronym of the Bel-Gem brand, which was an authentic Brussels waffle vendor that helped popularize the thicker style at the 1964 New York World's Fair.[76]
The Liège waffle[68] is a richer, denser, sweeter, and chewier waffle. Native to the greater Wallonia region of Eastern Belgium – and alternately known as gaufres de chasse (hunting waffles) – they are an adaptation of brioche bread dough, featuring chunks of pearl sugar which caramelize on the outside of the waffle when baked. It is the most common type of waffle available in Belgium and prepared in plain, vanilla and cinnamon varieties by street vendors across the nation.
The Proctor Silex Mess Free Belgian Style Waffle Maker (26044A) has features in common with our top pick, such as browning controls and indicator lights, but we had a much tougher time getting it to produce a decent waffle. We deemed the first batch soggy, and one tester said, “It’s not enough of a step up from Eggo—I’d rather have Eggo.” In a subsequent batch, half the waffle cooked much faster than the other, which meant that the former was overly brown while the latter remained pale and limp.
We’ve covered plenty of brunch-worthy appliances and tchotchkes in the past, including a waffle iron for Instagram-worthy waffles, eggcups à la Call Me by Your Name, the best French presses and pour-overs, and even skillets to make the perfect Chez Panisse–style eggs. Here, we’re doing a deep dive into the best waffle-makers available on Amazon. (Note that reviews have been edited for length and clarity.) 
I hate myself for how much I loved this machine. I don't think anyone should have to spend $200 on a waffle maker, and I was actively rooting for another, more budget-friendly model to best or at least match it. But after a full day of testing and eating, I cannot in good conscience recommend any waffle iron more enthusiastically. None of the machines we tested even came close. The All-Clad has ruined all other waffle makers for me.
The versatile four-waffle size allows you to feed large or small crowds, but this sturdy machine is still relatively compact, and it can easily store vertically or horizontally. Not only is it about the same price as our former top pick, the Proctor Silex 26016A (which is no longer being manufactured), it even feels of better quality and comes with more great features.

First, we have to identify what makes a good waffle. Regardless of whether you prefer your waffle light golden or dark brown, it should be crisp on the outside and light and fluffy on the inside. We always want a waffle that’s evenly cooked, free of burnt centers or pale edges; it should also be the same color on both sides. The key to achieving this is a waffle maker with coils that get hot enough to quickly cook the waffles, coupled with heavy plates to better retain the heat. A waffle iron that gets and stays hot can cook the batter surface more quickly, setting it into a crisp shell while keeping the inside moist and light. Waffles that take too long to cook end up dense, flabby, and leathery. We found that the best waffles were cooked in under four minutes.
What we didn’t like: This is a big and bulky unit, making it a difficult fit in small spaces. Without a drip tray, there is potential for mess. (However, because it's a flip model, you need less batter to fill up the iron, so drips are also less likely.) There was some unevenness in cooking, with the edges browning a touch faster than the rest. The deep wells and fixed plates make cleanup difficult.
The Black and Decker G48TD earns a nod from the lifestyle website Groom and Style, and many positive reviews from users who like that it can make four waffles at a time -- a plus for larger families, although you'll get more even browning if you let the heating plates warm back up for a minute or two between uses. Of course, that four-waffle capacity means this waffle iron has a larger footprint that single-waffle irons, and you can't stand it on end to save storage space. But most say they're more than willing to give up some counter space to this appliance and a little bit of control over the final waffle color in exchange for its versatility and the ability to give it a thorough cleaning.
Monica and Andre's mother Vitoria is native to the region of Aveiro where this specialty waffle originates from.  After  her diagnosis with leukemia, they  promised her she would still see them bring this Portuguese waffle which is called the Bolacha Americana (American cookie) to America.  A few years after finishing college they finally decided they had to keep the promise they made to her and bring this treat to the US for the first time. They started in 2015 at local street fairs and brought their cousins,  sisters Amanda and Andrea along too. After the fairs that summer they all knew this was something they had to continue.  On October 10,2015  they opened the shop, down the block from the hospital they were all born in. Their diverse educational backgrounds, family bond and love for their product has made Costa Nova Waffle a new Long Island favorite for dessert and coffee. 

This Belgian made waffle maker has been a European favorite for over 50 years. It is a very versatile addition to any kitchen. The back and forth rotating feature ensures that the batter is evenly distributed and the results will be uniform. The temperature gauge on the top of the machine allows for experimentation with texture so you can create a light, airy waffle or a crispy, crunchy one, whichever you prefer. A very special, unique feature of this waffle maker is that the waffle plates are...


This did the job, but it sure wasn't streamlined. Here is a photo from a World War II era training pamphlet. The subject was "How to use electrical appliances." Many rural households were just getting electricity due to the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) and the pamphlet was intended to get folks up to speed with the rest of the country. This photo shows the Government-approved method of "seasoning" a waffle iron (you put oil on it and let is burn in, creating the organic equivalent of Teflon). Any vegetable oil will do.

The Presto 03510 FlipSide Belgian Waffle Maker turned out to be a great little machine. I have made waffles about 10 times since purchasing the machine, and the waffles have turned out pretty much the same each time. We have found that certain mixes work better than others, but this is to expected. The two things I like most are 1) the timer, and 2) the relatively easy clean-up.
We’re still happy with our top pick from a few years ago, the Oster-Flip, but Oster doesn’t sell it anymore. They’ve switched their entire line to a new “DuraCeramic” coating, and while the wattage and temperature specs haven’t changed the new waffle iron just doesn’t brown waffles evenly. (We ordered a replacement model just to be sure something wasn’t broken.)

The Bella Copper Titanium Rotating Belgian Waffle Maker has a unique ceramic non-stick coating that is eight times more durable and cooks up to 30% faster than standard non-stick coatings. The coating is reinforced with titanium for outstanding durability and resistance to metal utensils. This healthy-eco coating does not contain lead, cadmium and is PTFE and PFOA free. No matter what side of the bed you wake up on, you will make the perfect flip with the Bella rotating waffle maker. Its...
Monica and Andre's mother Vitoria is native to the region of Aveiro where this specialty waffle originates from.  After  her diagnosis with leukemia, they  promised her she would still see them bring this Portuguese waffle which is called the Bolacha Americana (American cookie) to America.  A few years after finishing college they finally decided they had to keep the promise they made to her and bring this treat to the US for the first time. They started in 2015 at local street fairs and brought their cousins,  sisters Amanda and Andrea along too. After the fairs that summer they all knew this was something they had to continue.  On October 10,2015  they opened the shop, down the block from the hospital they were all born in. Their diverse educational backgrounds, family bond and love for their product has made Costa Nova Waffle a new Long Island favorite for dessert and coffee. 
Mixing is a critical step in batter preparation since overmixing causes the gluten to develop excessively and create a batter with too high of a viscosity that is difficult to pour and does not expand easily. A thick batter that is difficult spreading in the baking iron has an increased water activity of around 0.85. The increased viscosity made it harder for water to evaporate from the waffle causing an increase in water activity. The control waffles with a softer texture had a water activity of 0.74 after cooking. The Aw is less because the softer texture allows the water to evaporate. With an increased storage time, waffle physical and textural properties changes regardless of the batter viscosity.[93] Aged waffles shrink because air bubbles leak out and the structure starts to condense. Hardness and viscosity also increases as time goes by. Aged waffle samples displayed a starch retrogradation peak that increased with storage time due to the fact that more crystalline structures were present. Starch retrogradation is mentioned previously in this paper. The enthalpy value for melting of starch crystals increased with storage time as well.[93]
Electric waffle irons are made of two plates similarly set into a hinged body, which is heated through electric coils housed in the unit behind the plates. Some of these electric waffle makers have basic plug-and-play designs, while others offer variable heat settings, timers, and indicator lights telling you when your waffle is ready. For this review, we looked only at electric waffle makers and excluded stovetop waffle irons, since success with the latter has more to do with the cook’s skill and the heat source than differences in design.

With the nonstick cooking surface and a removable drip tray, cleanup is easy, too. When you are done, you can leave the gorgeous stainless steel unit on your counter or take advantage of the cord storage and the locking lid and turn it on its side for more compact storage. Like all All-Clad products, there is a limited lifetime warranty on this unit.
Toppings are fabulous, but the perfectly crisp, tender, and golden brown square waffles from All-Clad's Belgian waffle maker will leave you wondering, who needs butter and syrup anyway? It was one of the top scorers in all our performance evaluations and tied for easiest to use overall. Turn the dial to your preferred doneness setting, pour in batter (it's okay if you use too much — the removable moat tray will catch any excess), and go about your business until it chimes.
In the pantheon of waffle irons, the All-Clad Belgian Waffle Maker is the undisputed queen, but she comes with a price tag to match—so if you're watching your wallet, it's worth considering the Krups as a good alternative. Still, if you can save up some dough to take the plunge, you'll be rewarded with the best waffles of your life. And the build of the machine is so solid, you can think of it as you would a Le Creuset Dutch oven or a vintage Griswold cast-iron skillet—an heirloom to pass on to future generations for hundreds of more happy Sunday mornings.

What we liked: The Cuisinart waffle maker was the hottest of all the irons we tested, making waffles in just over three minutes. The waffles it produced were light and fluffy on the inside, with a delicate and crisp crust. They had deep divots for holding lots of syrup and butter, and a traditional round shape. Because the iron gets so hot, the adjustable temperature is actually a useful feature, unlike on most of the other waffle irons we tested.


Flip over Belgian waffles made with the Flip Belgian Waffle Maker. Professional-style flipping method ensures batter is distributed smoothly and cooks evenly for perfect results.There are waffles, and then there are Belgian waffles. Indulge in the experience of fresh, home-made Belgian waffles with deep pockets full of tasty toppings and syrup. Professional flipping method distributes batter evenly within the plates for waffles cooked to perfection. With the Oster® brand, you can cook with...
This batter also benefited the most from the flip mechanism found in some of the irons we tested, likely due to the fact that it's a thinner batter that flows flat into the iron. (The flip design delivers even heating by making sure that a thin batter receives equal contact with the plates on both the top and the bottom.) The waffles resulting from this batter browned more evenly in the flip models than in the stationary ones, with the exception of our high-end picks, the Breville and All-Clad, both of which performed excellently. Ultimately, though, aside from our top-rated flip model, we’d steer you toward our other top picks, including the budget ones, even though they’re stationary: They produced better waffles overall due to higher heat and shorter cook time, despite their uneven browning.
Belgian-style waffles were showcased at Expo 58 in Brussels.[59] Another Belgian introduced Belgian-style waffles to the United States at the 1962 Seattle World's Fair, but only really took hold at the 1964 New York World's Fair, when another Belgian entrepreneur introduced his "Bel-Gem" waffles.[60] In practice, contemporary American "Belgian waffles" are actually a hybrid of pre-existing American waffle types and ingredients and some attributes of the Belgian model.
The All-Clad 99011GT 2-Square Belgian Waffle Maker makes two Belgian waffles at once. Each waffle plate creates a one-inch thick Belgian waffle with a crispy exterior (thanks, in large part, to the All-Clad's "steam-release" system) and a fluffy interior. If you like deep waffle pockets to catch your syrup and butter, you're likely to enjoy this product. A few owners we surveyed told us that they occasionally get a "limp" or "damp" waffle out of their All-Clad. However, this could very well be the result of anxious consumers who don't wait long enough for their waffle to thoroughly cook.
The Coleman Waffle Iron is the perfect size for camping, tailgating or living -- and cooking -- off the grid. It cooks two waffles at once and has no moving parts that could be damaged. The non-stick coating works best if it's brushed with cooking oil and then preheated before pouring in the batter. Even if you're "just" cooking at home, the Coleman Waffle Iron is a great choice for those with small kitchens or limited space.

One of the most important attributes of a waffle maker is how well its nonstick coating works—there’s nothing worse than trying to clean stuck-on waffle from those narrow cracks. Luckily, waffles popped out easily from the Krups GQ502D with the aid of silicone tongs or chopsticks, even on the one or two occasions when opening the lid took a little prying. The manual recommends oiling the plates just once each time you use the machine, and we found that this step was more than enough to keep waffles from sticking, even through many rounds of batter. Best of all, the waffle plates detach from the machine, so once they’re cool you can pop them in the sink and wash them with soap and water, or, according to the manufacturer, even run them through the dishwasher. This is so much easier than cleaning most of the other machines we tried, including our former top pick, which requires you to wipe down the plates still in the machine with first a soapy cloth and then a damp one; inevitably, some soap seems to cling stubbornly in the cracks. But only two other machines we tested—the Nordic Ware stovetop model and Black+Decker’s brand-new (as of 2016) Removable Plate Waffle Maker, model WM700R—featured removable plates, and both fell far short of the Krups in ease of use and quality of waffles.


The ones we definitely tend to avoid are the machines which claim to be able to make both great American and Belgian waffles. The old cliché “Jack of all trades, master of none” almost always holds true when it comes to models which supposedly are versatile enough to produce terrific waffles whether you prefer them thin or thick. The optimal construction of a waffle maker is very different for each type, and there’s no way a quality machine can do justice to both.
DO NOT OPEN the iron until the steam has stopped emanating from between the plates. If you have a Twin-O-Matic, you can set the temperature you want. If you have a Twinover, you have to rely on the thermometer to tell you when to "bake. On both, you'll have to watch the thing so that your waffles don't burn (this is very easy after a small amount of practice). Take the waffles out in the order you poured them.
Bryan is our cooking and kitchen expert, with more than 15 years of experience of cooking and testing kitchen products. When outside of the kitchen, he enjoys woodworking, photography, videography and figuring out how to live a more eco-friendly lifestyle. He thoroughly enjoys discovering the best, whether it’s ingredients or equipment, and finding products that can stand the rigors of daily use.

I’m so grateful to have found your recipe! After making a highly rated yet sadly disappointing recipe I found elsewhere, I’m thrilled to read the science behind why certain ingredients do and do not work to recreate that hotel – breakfast style waffle! Usually these are things that I end up looking up on my own and I thank you for sharing those tidbits to save me the work. Your recipe is spot-on and I’ll be following your writing from here on!
What we didn’t like: This is a big and bulky unit, making it a difficult fit in small spaces. Without a drip tray, there is potential for mess. (However, because it's a flip model, you need less batter to fill up the iron, so drips are also less likely.) There was some unevenness in cooking, with the edges browning a touch faster than the rest. The deep wells and fixed plates make cleanup difficult.

Now, because you can't toss your new electrical appliance in the sink with soapy water, here's how to clean a waffle maker: The good news is that waffle makers have drastically improved in recent years — nearly every model now comes with nonstick cooking plates, which means that (with proper upkeep) you won't be using a toothpick to dislodge burnt-on waffle bits. We recommend allowing your iron to cool first, then wiping the plates clean with a dry paper towel. If any grime remains, spot clean them with a damp cloth or let a bit of cooking oil sit on the grime for a few minutes before wiping away. And avoid using nonstick cooking spray, as this stuff will cook onto the plates and become nearly impossible to remove. The result: No more nonstick coating.
Bella's rotating waffle maker bakes one round traditional waffle in less than 3 minutes, making it one of the quickest-to-cook models we tested. It received near top performance scores amongst traditional waffle makers tested, producing perfectly tender waffles from both a mix and from scratch and evenly browned 'em, too. Little ones helping cook breakfast will love flipping the waffle maker over after you add the batter. 
If picture-perfect waffles are a must-have, then this flip model is the pick for you. The flip function makes it easy to distribute the batter from edge to edge, without worrying about overflow. The Cuisinart waffle maker heats up and cooks waffles fast, producing a crisp outer shell and fluffy interior. Its heavy plates heat evenly and retain the heat well, so batch after batch of waffles turns out consistently browned. This iron quickly makes two large waffles at a time and reheats rapidly, so it can handle a lot of growling stomachs. This model also features an on/off switch, allowing you to always have it set up on your counter for waffles on the fly.
If you love waffles, it’s worth giving the large Cuisinart Double Belgian Waffle Maker some of your precious counter real estate. It makes the waffles dreams are made of thick, fluffy, and tender on the inside, and crunchy on the outside. Plus, it bakes two at a time. After you add batter to one chamber, you rotate it in its frame, fill the other side, and rotate it again. Lights and tones signal when each one is done. Unlike less expensive flip machines, this one feels solid and well built. It also comes with a ¾ cup measure for batter.
The closest thing to an old-fashioned non-electric waffle iron is the pizelle maker. Pizzelle (pronounced "pit-sell") are Italian wafer cookies. The name comes from the Italian pizze for round and flat. Many different cultures have adapted this technology and re-named it accordingly. In Scandinavia they are also known as "Lukken" and in Holland as Krumcake. All use an iron similar iron to the pizzelle.
“My 40-year quest to find the perfect waffle-maker ended when I purchased this double-flip model. Over the decades, I had bought and used a number of different non-flip models. All suffered from the same problem of requiring more precise filling than I was capable of — too much batter and it oozed out the sides and made a big mess, but too little and the waffles ended up with bald spots. Then I started paying attention to the waffle-makers that hotels use for brunch. From Frankfurt to Burlington to Savannah, they all used flip-style waffle-makers. So I hunted down and tried this model. It works great! The flip action distributes the batter evenly. No oozing, and no bald spots. And the thermometer/timer works very well — I set it around 4, and when the beeper sounds, I have perfectly golden-brown waffles every time. The waffles release easily, and there’s minimal cleanup. Best. Waffle. Maker. Ever.”
In 1926, Mr. Charles M. Cole of Oakland, California came up with a novel idea for cooking two waffles at once. He devised a three-part mold with each segment heated by electric current. This device allowed couples to have their waffle at the same time (contributing to happy and harmonious breakfasts) and also was fairly economical in use of electric current. (In the 1920s, electricity was VERY expensive, perhaps 25 cents/Kwh in 1926 dollars. This would be about $7.50/kwh in today's dollars compared with an actual cost of about 7 cents/Kwh.)
The Keyboard Waffle Iron is designed from the waffle-out. It features a unique wide format plate that creates a delicious Belgian-style waffle in the shape of your beloved computer keyboard. We've also added a comfortable curved handle for easy flipping. All of this in a simple and sleek design that compliments your kitchen. Just add heat, batter, and toppings! 
Before pouring batter into grids, always spray them with a small amount of nonstick cooking spray. Waffle color and crispiness are determined by the temperature of the grids, so the higher the temperature, the browner and crisper the waffle. If the cover of the waffle maker doesn’t lift up easily, let your waffle cook a little longer before lifting the lid again. To store waffles for later reheating, pack in airtight container and keep in the refrigerator or freezer.
If looks matter to you most, consider a rotating waffle maker. Because you flip the iron over as it bakes, the batter can become more evenly distributed over the grates. That being said, if you really want picture-perfect waffles, try our Lab's even-heating hack: After pouring waffle batter over the hot grates, use a rubber spatula to gently (and quickly) distribute the batter evenly across the surface before closing the waffle maker's lid. You'll never have to eat a waffle with absent, sorry-looking edges again!
Allow the waffle maker to cool completely before cleaning it. Wipe the plates down with a soft, damp cloth or paper towel. Brush any crumbs off with a soft kitchen brush. Use a rubber spatula to pick off any pieces of batter stuck to the plates. For really stubborn spots, cover them with cooking oil, wait 5 minutes, then wipe them away with a soft cloth.
The Black and Decker G48TD earns a nod from the lifestyle website Groom and Style, and many positive reviews from users who like that it can make four waffles at a time -- a plus for larger families, although you'll get more even browning if you let the heating plates warm back up for a minute or two between uses. Of course, that four-waffle capacity means this waffle iron has a larger footprint that single-waffle irons, and you can't stand it on end to save storage space. But most say they're more than willing to give up some counter space to this appliance and a little bit of control over the final waffle color in exchange for its versatility and the ability to give it a thorough cleaning.
By the mid-16th century, there were signs of waffles' mounting French popularity. Francois I, king from 1494–1547, of whom it was said les aimait beacoup (loved them a lot), had a set of waffle irons cast in pure silver.[26][27] His successor, Charles IX enacted the first waffle legislation in 1560, in response to a series of quarrels and fights that had been breaking out between the oublieurs. They were required "d'être au moins à la distance de deux toises l'un de l'autre. " (to be no less than 4 yards from one to the other).[15]
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